|1.||Tech Economy: TTDC targets Angels and Entrepreneurs|
Local Angel net and Mercury Labs shoulder high-profile assignments for the state's tech-driven economic development leader
By Milt Capps / Published Wednesday, March 11, 2009 3:19 pm
|2.||TTDC, Mind2Marketplace relationship expands|
With ties to key members of the Congressional delegation, M2M has a leg-up in seeking funding of various sorts
By Milt Capps Last Updated 1:08 p.m. / Published Tuesday, April 21, 2009 12:12 pm
|3.||TTDC says it plans no funding for TN Bio Assn.|
Technology-enterprise advocate believes life-sciences sector cannot advance without stronger leadership
By Milt Capps / Published Wednesday, October 21, 2009 12:37 pm
|4.||State's TechDevCorp adapting to threats and opportunities|
Warning TNInvestco's not enough, TTDC hopes to keep its mission alive, maybe by spinning-off new ventures
By Milt Capps Updated 6:27 AM Oct. 27, 2009 / Published Monday, October 26, 2009 1:50 pm
|5.||For the record: Launch Tennessee aims to revise statutory charter|
Talked about for a year or more, the effort gets fresh momentum
Milt Capps / Published Monday, March 6, 2017 1:00 pm
|6.||Growing TN: Hagerty chairs ECD-funded TTDC development group|
Leadership shift was accomplished August 19, with Hagerty now chairman of TTDC
By Milt Capps Updated August 19, 2011 3:38 p.m. / Published Thursday, August 18, 2011 2:24 pm
|7.||Tennessee Technology Development Corporation at another inflection point|
Tech-driven economic development will eventually learn what priority it gets in the Haslam Administration
By Milt Capps updated 9:46 p.m. / Published Monday, February 6, 2012 9:36 am
|8.||Latest TTDC grants meant to vault Tennessee|
startups beyond 'Valley of Death'
Eight ventures are $50K TTDC maturation grant awardees
By Milt Capps / Published Monday, March 21, 2011 8:27 am
|9.||Game-changing ideas for Tennessee venture capital|
Could new Angel tax credits, grant programs and quasi-debt facilities provide the critical mass of capital Tennessee needs?
Milt Capps / Published Friday, November 28, 2008 2:47 pm
|10.||Tech strategist joins Tennessee economic advocate|
Tennessee Technology Development Corporation continues to assemble its team to drive tech-centered economic development.
Milt Capps / Published Friday, June 6, 2008 2:19 pm
|11.||Leadership succession at Tennessee Technology Development Corporation|
TTDC lands prominent healthcare CEO, scientist and policy influential to help navigate the shores of business, academe and government
Milt Capps / Published Monday, September 29, 2008 8:04 am
|12.||TTDC's Stover is departing for Diagnovus venture backed by TNInvestco's|
Scholar and entrepreneur will co-found molecular diagnostics startup in Nashville
By Milt Capps Updated 10:23 p.m. / Published Friday, September 30, 2011 3:00 pm
|13.||TTDC grants $100K to Nashville Entrepreneur Center, names two board leaders|
Tech economic development group also funds entrepreneurs network and appoints vice chairperson as it heads into legislative fray
By Milt Capps Updated 3:44 a.m. Jan. 22, 2010 / Published Thursday, January 21, 2010 4:34 pm
|14.||TNInvestco finalists named by ECD-Revenue|
Ten companies of 25 are advancing toward interviews and a shot at more than $80MM in tax-credit allocations that can be capitalized
By Milt Capps / Published Wednesday, October 7, 2009 9:53 am
|15.||Haslam INCITE entrepreneurial capital-access|
program moves stepwise toward launch
ECD and TTDC chiefs and their colleagues seem to be 'aligned' toward getting INCITE launched
By Milt Capps Updated 28 December 2011 at 4:14 p.m. / Published Thursday, December 22, 2011 11:51 am
|16.||Analysis: Cromwell still pushing for traction at TTDC|
Venture advocate's latest activity recalls earlier attempts to ignite technology in Tennessee
Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, April 8, 2008 9:02 am
|17.||TN TechDev's life running through financial hourglass|
Tennessee Technology Development Corp. faces the proverbial 'Valley of Death' in its own funding, and looks to the Bredesen Administration for a liferope
By Milt Capps / Published Wednesday, October 21, 2009 12:37 pm
|18.||NEWSBITS March 30, 2009|
Notes from Northshore Capital Management, TTDC, VCs, wealth-management moves and more...
By Milt Capps / Published Monday, March 30, 2009 9:44 am
|19.||Tennessee Technology Development Corp. sharpens venture focus|
TTDC presses ahead on numerous fronts, with a deadline looming just over the horizon, amid a rough economy, and political changes
Milt Capps / Published Friday, November 7, 2008 10:56 am
|20.||2010 Economy: Kisber, Cromwell both face reckoning|
For perhaps the next six months, the pace of development of Tennessee's emerging New Economy will be largely in the hands of elected officials
By Milt Capps / Published Wednesday, January 6, 2010 2:47 pm
|21.||TTDC funds bioscience entrepreneurship initiative|
With former VC hired to lead program, grant for entrepreneurship helps flesh-out tech-development ecosystem
By Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, February 10, 2009 9:39 am
|22.||Vanderbilt's $50M discovery fund, TTDC's signal event|
TTDC convenes investors and scientists in Nashville -- and Chancellor Zeppos announces new money for VU's academic discovery fund
Milt Capps / Published Thursday, September 4, 2008 7:56 am
|23.||TTDC predicts venture-cap program will be 'over-subscribed'|
There may be fences to mend, but now it's time for the state's VCs to Cowboy Up and make a move
By Milt Capps Last Updated July 17 10:40 a.m. / Published Thursday, July 16, 2009 3:13 pm
At left, Fran Marcum
By Milt Capps / Published Thursday, November 5, 2009 10:30 am
|25.||Entrepreneurs, VCs, TTDC mobilize for venture funding|
Spring 2010 may go down in the annals of modern Tennessee history as a period of innovation breakthroughs
By Milt Capps Last update 11:05 p.m. / Published Wednesday, March 3, 2010 3:06 pm
|26.||Updated: LaunchTN board of directors|
A Nashville investment banker is among new members of TTDC/LTN.
Staff edited 5:46pm / Published Monday, July 20, 2015 2:00 pm
|27.||TN ECD asks public comment on $30MM Co-Investment plans|
State ECD issued draft guidelines for Gov. Haslam's INCITE Co-Investment Fund managed by TTDC
At VentureTennessee / Published Monday, November 28, 2011 5:41 pm
|28.||TTDC supports innovation with $500K for six teams|
TTDC gets its second wind, releases funding for technology and commercialization grants, looks toward future
By Milt Capps Last Updated 5:46 a.m., Sept. 29 / Published Monday, September 28, 2009 1:54 pm
|29.||NewsBits, December 7, 2010|
News and notes from around Tennessee on science, technology, innovation and related policy.
By Milt Capps Updated 1:11 p.m. / Published Tuesday, December 7, 2010 9:00 am
|30.||TTDC: Launch Tennessee fills gaps in board of directors|
Tennessee Technology Development Corporation (dba Launch Tennessee) refreshes board.
By Milt Capps / Published Thursday, January 25, 2018 3:00 pm
|31.||TTDC-as-LaunchTN gets vital runway extension from Haslam Administration|
With fingers crossed and funds in-hand, the tech-centric nonprofit forges ahead
By Milt Capps edits June 9, 2012 8:50 a.m. / Published Thursday, June 7, 2012 2:55 pm
|32.||TTDC Launch Tennessee preps for its Sunset hearing at Comptroller request|
Both LaunchTN and its sponsor, TN ECD, have begun responding to Comptroller requests ahead of hearings later this year.
By Milt Capps / Published Thursday, August 6, 2020 1:53 pm
|33.||Launch Tennessee beefs-up board of directors,|
sheds TTDC branding while CEO search continues
A true startup leader, investment pros and others are aboard for the continuing relaunch
By Milt Capps updated Nov. 21, 2012 6:26 a.m. / Published Thursday, November 1, 2012 12:09 pm
|34.||20 Days: Launch Tennessee bets heavily on impact of 36|86 conference|
LTN aims to draw 900, including perhaps 100 investors to its 4th annual conclave in Nashville.
Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, May 17, 2016 4:45 pm
|35.||Innovators and allies seek $20MM to improve Tennessee research, economy and culture|
Vanderbilt institute gets a key role with ORNL and UT, in scenario for improving university collaboration and state's entrepreneurism
By Milt Capps Last updated 9:38 a.m. Nov. 5, 2009 / Published Wednesday, November 4, 2009 1:33 pm
|36.||General Assembly spotlights venture investing|
The state's new private-equity director debuts and a VC panel gets the lowdown on controversial venture-funding proposal
By Milt Capps Last updated 8:55 a.m. April 6, 2009 / Published Monday, April 6, 2009 12:22 am
|37.||LaunchTN seeks traction on many fronts as it seeks to close deal for a CEO|
Re-launch puzzle coming into focus; filling the CEO chair is priority
By Milt Capps corrected 3:24 p.m. / Published Monday, August 6, 2012 11:25 am
|38.||LaunchTN appoints commercialization director from Nashville startup ranks|
TTDC now seems to be fully staffed to further pro-venture programs
By Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, March 5, 2013 9:54 am
|39.||Gov. Haslam: TN to co-invest via INCITE|
innovation and jobs-formation campaign
Governor addresses fast-growth sector; details of venture funding, entrepreneur award and tech-transfer still unfolding
By Milt Capps Updated May 6, 2011 12:12 p.m. / Published Thursday, May 5, 2011 4:12 pm
|40.||Gov. Haslam's INCITE program stirs to life via 'Venture Incite' A-round|
There are some new faces among the 'usual suspects' applying at INCITE Fund
By Milt Capps updated May 26, 2012 / Published Monday, May 14, 2012 10:08 am
|41.||LaunchTN CEO search draws 900 resumes, dozens of qualified candidates|
Rolfe and Brock doubtless plan a smooth transition to maintain momentum, but there are vagaries to ponder.
By Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, July 17, 2018 4:45 pm
|42.||Former LaunchTN Chairman William Evans|
hands St. Jude CEO reins to James Downing, M.D.
A change at the helm of one of Tennessee's most recognized institutions.
Staff / Published Wednesday, June 25, 2014 2:15 pm
|43.||Gov. Haslam announces $29.7MM Fed funding for INCITE push|
As widely anticipated, the Feds came through with $29.7MM in funding for Gov. Bill Haslam's innovation-breeding program
By VNC Staff / Published Tuesday, August 16, 2011 2:37 pm
|44.||NEWSBITS, Feb. 18, 2010|
TTDC forum, TNInvestco website, VU tech transfer, PureSafety, Tricycle, Memphis leadership, and more...
By Milt Capps Last updated 8:52 a.m. / Published Thursday, February 18, 2010 7:15 am
|45.||LaunchTN names Capital Formation, Entrepreneurship leaders|
Tennessee Technology Development Corporation (TTDC), aka Launch Tennessee, fills posts.
Milt Capps / Published Thursday, August 11, 2016 2:45 pm
|46.||Venture Nashville Calendar Update|
Nashville and Tennessee are quickly becoming year-round innovation venues, as this sampling of events makes clear
By Milt Capps Last updated Mon., April 5, 2010 12:11 p.m. / Published Saturday, April 3, 2010 5:39 pm
|47.||ECD's Kisber reasserts State authority for venture-capital push|
With the leverage of the game-changing TNInvestco program becoming more apparent, Bredesen Cabinet officials move to establish control, for the long-haul
By Milt Capps Last updated 3:51 p.m. / Published Thursday, July 30, 2009 1:01 pm
|48.||Gov. Haslam senses Tennessee 'making headway' in tech commercialization|
LaunchTN CEO agrees it'd be great to have more data and analyses about all this.
Milt Capps / Published Monday, February 13, 2017 8:45 am
|49.||State venture-capital incentive gains traction in Gen. Assembly|
Legislators want to demonstrate support for smaller ventures, advocates say the CAPCO model has been improved since early adopters found serious flaws
By Milt Capps Last Updated 4:09 p.m. May 1, 2009 / Published Friday, May 1, 2009 8:37 am
|50.||Venture Nashville Calendar of Coming Events|
Whether you're an entrepreneur, VC, techie or community leader for growth, you'll want to examine these offerings, closely
By Milt Capps / Published Monday, August 31, 2009 9:07 pm
|51.||Stakes are rising for TTDC, as VC group presses for change|
Tennessee Technology Development Corporation has a great gameplan, but the clock is ticking for policymakers, VCs, scientists and entrepreneurs
Milt Capps / Published Friday, November 28, 2008 2:50 pm
|52.||CEO Charlie Brock announces departure from Launch Tennessee |
[updated] High-energy team builder prepares for his next entrepreneurial or service act.
Milt Capps updated 4:13 pm CT / Published Thursday, May 17, 2018 2:40 pm
|53.||Innova Fund II, LP|
At left, Ken Woody
By Milt Capps Last Updated 6:06 p.m. Nov. 5, 2009 / Published Thursday, November 5, 2009 10:29 am
|54.||'Nashville Overground' could help stir startups|
Nashville's creative roots are strong and the juices are flowing. Now, the 'sustainability' theme is due a hearing.
Milt Capps UPDATED 11:17 AM / Published Friday, November 14, 2008 10:03 am
|55.||SMTEC accelerator's Marcum retires, LaunchTN Rural plans nears debut|
The state's accelerator-linked ecosystem continues to evolve, it seems.
Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, October 20, 2015 11:45 am
|56.||IP imperative: MyWerx, Cumberland Center|
and Universities ally for iExchange
Alliance push to help protect and commercialize intellectual property could become a global movement
By Milt Capps updated Thursday, Oct. 20, 2011 10:35 a.m. / Published Wednesday, October 19, 2011 10:32 am
|57.||LaunchTN designates attorney Bruce Doeg vice chairman|
Long vacant seat goes to board veteran.
Milt Capps updated 21 April 2016 / Published Tuesday, October 27, 2015 5:20 pm
|58.||TNInvestco: Goldrush underway to fund TN ventures|
$120MM program should inject more than $80MM into seed- and early-stage companies in Tennessee over next few years
By Milt Capps Last updated 10:29 a.m. Nov. 5, 2009 / Published Thursday, November 5, 2009 10:30 am
|59.||People: LaunchTN's Denenberg preps NourishWise startup|
Agency's entrepreneurship director seems to have caught the bug.
Milt Capps updated 24 July 2014 10:50 a.m. / Published Monday, July 21, 2014 1:45 pm
|60.||New LaunchTN CEO Brock cites innovation 'momentum', surveys challenges|
First permanent CEO in three years begins a stem-stern review as he wades-in
By Milt Capps updated 11:17 a.m. / Published Tuesday, January 8, 2013 11:11 am
|61.||Sidebar: Opinions on CAPCO vary among VCs|
Tennessee executives see both problems and opportunities in proposal for stimulation of early-stage investment
By Milt Capps / Published Friday, May 1, 2009 8:35 am
|62.||N³: NashvilleCubed April-May Venture events|
At north of 500 square miles, Metro/Nashville, aka Music City, is creative hub and economic flywheel
By Milt Capps / Published Monday, April 4, 2011 8:09 am
|63.||State of the Startups: Tennessee Technology Development Corporation,|
aka Launch Tennessee, wants to shed some commercialization emphasis
Gov. Bill Haslam delivers his State of the State Address this evening.
By Milt Capps SoS Transcript added 31 Jan 0726 / Published Monday, January 30, 2017 9:30 am
|64.||NEXT TN: Research-industry-capital links are key|
to state's intellectual-property commercialization
An overhaul of Tennessee connections, communications and capital is prerequisite to strong gains in commercialization
By Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, May 10, 2011 7:54 am
|65.||ORNL's Ballard joins PYA, hands-off portfolio to scientist Roberto|
Veteran emissary to institutions' stakeholders and allies is re-potting himself after a 41-year-career
By Milt Capps / Published Monday, October 31, 2011 6:40 am
|66.||Expansion-minded Launch Tennessee funding at-issue,|
while Seed Fund proposal still likely to see daylight
With the General Assembly and Governor in full budget mode, LaunchTN assesses its options.
Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, March 21, 2017 4:00 pm
|67.||NewsBits, April 25, 2011|
JumpStart's 'brightest'... EmergeMemphis' 45 startups.. Haslam-Hagerty gameplan... David Wilds in cap raise.. Blackstone venture aid...
By Milt Capps Updated 3:14 p.m. / Published Monday, April 25, 2011 8:56 am
|68.||As General Assembly grinds along, some notes on TNInvestco and more|
Resources that might provide refreshment for those looking to advance Tennessee innovation.
Milt Capps / Published Monday, April 17, 2017 4:15 pm
|69.||Clayton McWhorter to chair Nashville Entrepreneur Center|
Four business leaders formed the core of group that picked the NEC's inaugural board
By Milt Capps Last updated 3:15 p.m. / Published Wednesday, January 13, 2010 12:21 pm
|70.||General Assembly endorses Haslam 'Angel Tax Credit', passes commercialization and rural-development measures|
Cautious handling by proponents seems likely to advance state programs, stepwise.
Milt Capps / Published Thursday, April 21, 2016 4:15 pm
|71.||Margaret Dolan named to succeed Charlie Brock as CEO of Launch Tennessee|
Longtime entrepreneurial consultant and Ingram Industries executive gets the nod.
By Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, October 9, 2018 9:21 am
|72.||Winners announced from Statewide University Pitch Competition|
[Updated] Effort intended to engage student-led startup teams statewide.
Staff / Published Tuesday, June 7, 2016 12:30 pm
|73.||Gov. Haslam names entrepreneur Bob Rolfe to head TN ECD|
Former MRA exec, turnaround guy and member of the J.C. Bradford diaspora named.
adapted from submitted release / Published Thursday, February 16, 2017 1:15 pm
|74.||Tennessee Biotechnology Association wrestles with leadership and priorities|
TBA is apparently regrouping, and still dealing with basic organizational and strategy issues as it confront a crisis of opportunity, because of the growing importance of the life sciences
By Milt Capps Last updated 1:43 p.m. / Published Thursday, September 17, 2009 12:08 pm
|75.||Life Science Tennessee sets priorities, rallies industry,|
leverages support of Gov. Bill Haslam for commercialization
Joe Cook Jr. seems to be executing with precision a gameplan to establish momentum for a still-small sector
By Milt Capps updated 12:19 p.m. / Published Monday, November 7, 2011 7:49 am
|76.||LaunchTN 36|86 Announces "Village 36" for event June 6-7 in Nashville|
adapted from submitted release / Published Thursday, April 28, 2016 6:00 pm
|77.||Advocates: 'Protection' could derail TNInvestco locomotive|
While some advocate expanding the TNInvestco warchest to $200MM, others want to introduce new requirements others argue would deter investment, competition
By Milt Capps Last updated 1:58 p.m. / Published Monday, February 22, 2010 9:39 am
|78.||Venture Notes - 19 October 2016|
Boyd & Brock of LaunchTN respond on sustainability, Healthcare, Rural Metrics and more.
Milt Capps / Published Wednesday, October 19, 2016 11:42 am
|79.||VNC's Top 25 Reads for 2010|
For Calendar Year 2010, here are VentureNashville's twenty-five most-opened offerings.
Published Monday, January 10, 2011 2:30 pm
|80.||Faros Healthcare names board chair, as Centerstone plan advances|
[updated] Former Pathfinder exec is CEO in the business that got running start in Centerstone.
Milt Capps updated 9:55am 25 Oct 2016 / Published Monday, October 24, 2016 4:08 pm
|81.||VCs form industry consortium, as TNInvestco nears kickoff|
Those who would be fund managers in the state's new program are taking a close look at the groundrules and the competition
By Milt Capps Last updated 12:16 PM, July 28 / Published Monday, July 27, 2009 7:25 am
|82.||NV Entrepreneur Center tells startups in 2019 ProjectHealthcare cohort|
The EC says four of the 14 teams announced today originate in Tennessee.
updated 25 July 2019 / Published Wednesday, July 10, 2019 1:50 pm
|83.||Vanderbilt steps-up effort to help faculty create ventures, market products|
Hundreds of discoveries and patents on-hand, Vanderbilt expands its efforts to commercialize intellectual property
Milt Capps / Published Sunday, November 23, 2008 8:39 pm
|84.||Venture Capital tax credit approved by General Assembly|
[Updated 5:52 p.m.] The TNSBICCA passed in both House and Senate today, and will next go to Gov. Bredesen. The Senate vote was 30-0. It passed in the full House this morning, 94-0, and in Senate Finance this afternoon 9-0-1PNV. The insurance industry provides the leverage for this economic development and venture-funding move.
By Milt Capps Last updated 5:52 p.. June 18, 2009 / Published Thursday, June 18, 2009 10:12 am
|85.||Launch Tennessee names Van Tucker to strategic COO role|
CEO Margaret Dolan has gained an exec who apparently knows a valuable badass when she sees one.
By Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, January 14, 2020 3:30 pm
|86.||Venture Notes - 12 April 2016|
This roundup features Amplion, HCCA, CouncilCapital, John Murdock, Joe Kustelski, Proton and more.
Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, April 12, 2016 4:15 pm
|87.||Policy: Innovation & Startups Equity Investment Program draws TN interest |
Proposed federal funding could rekindle TN entrepreneurship and innovation, much as during the earlier Haslam Administration.
By Milt Capps / Published Tuesday, June 9, 2020 5:30 pm
|88.||Chattanooga's Charlie Brock rumored likely to become LaunchTN CEO|
The deal may not yet be done, but CEO search may be nearing its end
By Milt Capps updated 2:32 p.m. 13 December / Published Wednesday, December 12, 2012 8:44 am
|89.||Solidus' Venture Incite options ORNL technology|
to bring its start-up 'assembly line' to life
Nashville VC's Oak Ridge affiliate has focused one of its startups on commercializing 'the Moses effect'
By Milt Capps Updated 2:47 p.m. / Published Sunday, June 19, 2011 2:32 pm
|90.||Franklin's Innovation Park may include technology incubator|
Developers studying HudsonAlpha and other innovation centers.
Milt Capps / Published Thursday, April 14, 2016 1:30 pm
|91.||LaunchTN, UpSkill 901 seek grants for innovation marketplace, talent|
Despite massive headwinds, NGOs and other nonprofits seek to help drive transformation of state and its regional economies.
By Milt Capps / Published Wednesday, July 29, 2020 9:07 am
|92.||Gov. Haslam says ECD Commissioner Randy Boyd returning to private sector|
Announcement could fuel fresh speculation regarding potential Boyd bid for GOP gubernatorial nomination.
Milt Capps / Published Monday, January 9, 2017 3:52 pm
|93.||Care Technology Systems says Healthcare venture veteran Hertik joins board|
There are other shoes to drop at Care Technology, but today's is a good start
By Milt Capps edits 11:54 a.m. / Published Tuesday, September 4, 2012 11:29 am
|94.||Startup Tennessee launch to draw Gov. Haslam,|
Startup America CEO to Entrepreneur Center
[UPDATED] Tennessee's entrepreneurial ecosystem gets a new unifying layer of resources
By Milt Capps updated 1:14 p.m. June 28, 2011 / Published Monday, June 27, 2011 10:15 am
|95.||LaunchTN WIP: Exploring state Angel network, policy options and rankings|
Tennessee Technology Development Corporation, TTDC, lays-out its priorities.
Milt Capps / Published Monday, July 21, 2014 1:30 pm
|96.||Launch Tennessee names Partnerships Coordinator|
Tennessee Tech alumna and entrepreneurship intern gets the job.
By Milt Capps / Published Thursday, July 18, 2019 3:36 pm
|97.||Surgiorithm among 5 Startups pitching LaunchTn-LSTN Venture Match|
[Updated] Startups with roots in Tennessee and Dallas take the stage Nov. 4 at Innovation Park
Milt Capps updated 17 March 2017 / Published Wednesday, November 2, 2016 5:15 pm
|98.||Belmont University Student Business Plan Competition set March 15|
[Updated] Ten student teams and their bizplans present at the Massey Center.
Milt Capps Updated / Published Thursday, March 2, 2017 3:00 pm
|99.||Tennesseans push Industry-Scitech partnering in D.C.|
VU, Bart Gordon, ORNL among partners: Meeting in D.C. seeks better ways to link business, science and national labs
Milt Capps / Published Sunday, December 7, 2008 7:30 pm
|100.||The TENN master accelerator cohort for 2016-17|
TTDC releases another interesting group of startups from instate and out-of-state.
adapted from submission / Published Thursday, October 20, 2016 6:43 am